7TH EDITION CHANGES
This guide serves to review the changes that were made to the APA 7th Edition Publication Manual. This is not an exhaustive list but rather a collection of differences that have been identified by the library faculty and staff. Please feel free to contact us if you have noticed a change that is not listed here.
All standards appearing on this page are from the new 7th Edition Style Manual.
The manual provides 114 examples to follow. The examples range from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and social media. When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online sources easier and clearer. For each reference category, an easy template is provided to help you understand and apply the citation guidelines. Please feel free to contact the library if you have questions about a specific resource type.
Listed here are some of the biggest changes in the 7th edition:
1. The publisher location is no longer included in the reference.
- 6th edition: Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
- 7th edition: Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.
2. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”.
- 6th edition: (Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)
- 7th edition: (Taylor et al., 2018)
3. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.
- 6th edition: Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., … Lee, L. H. (2018).
- 7th edition: Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).
4. DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary.
- 6th edition: doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449
- 7th edition: https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449
5. URLs are no longer require the phrase “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.
- 6th edition: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127
- 7th edition: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127
6. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included. See comparison of 6th & 7th APA below:
- 6th edition: Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites [Kindle version]. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2
- 7th edition: Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2
7. Examples are included in the APA 7 Manual for online source types such as podcast episodes, social media posts, and YouTube videos. The use of emojis and hashtags is also explained.
Writing inclusively and without bias is the standard now emphasized in APA’s (7th Edition) new publication manual. contains a separate chapter on this topic. The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity. Some examples include:
8. The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.
- 6th edition: A researcher’s career depends on how often he or she is cited.
- 7th edition: A researcher’s career depends on how often they are cited.
9. Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are preferred.
- 6th edition: The poor
- 7th edition: People living in poverty
10. Instead of broad categories, you should use exact age ranges that are more relevant and specific.
- 6th edition: People over 65 years old
- 7th edition: People in the age range of 65 to 75 years old
In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:
11. Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11.
12. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It now contains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title.
13. The running head itself is omitted in student papers (unless required by instructor).
14. Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability.
In terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and better explained guidelines, there are two notable changes:
15. Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence.
16. Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”) instead of italics.6
- 6th edition: APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun they
- 7th edition: APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”
STUDENT TITLE PAGE (Not for Publication)
Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their title page. Unless instructed otherwise, students should follow these specifications for their student title page:
- Affiliation (University and School/Department)
- Course Number and Name
- Instructor Name
- Assignment Due Date
- Page Number (Upper Right Hand Corner)
LEVELS OF HEADING
Format for the Five Levels of Heading in APA Style
Centered, Bold, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.
Flush Left, Bold, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.
Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.
Indented, Bold, Title Case Heading, Ending With a Period. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.
Indented, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading, Ending With a Period. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.
Note that most of the basic in-text citation rules have not changed. The change comes in that the 7th edition does not differentiate a separate citation style for works by 3-5 authors and works by 6 or more authors. Now, the et al. phrase is used for all works with three or more authors in both the first in-text citation and for all subsequent in-text citations.
||(Morgan & Mattace, 2020)
||Morgan and Mattace (2020)
|Three or more authors
||(Ward et al., 2020)
||Ward et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviation
(Appalachian College Association [ACA], 2020)
Appalachian College Association (ACA, 2020)
|Group author without abbreviation
||(Lee University, 2020)
||Lee University (2020)
SAMPLE REFERENCE PAGE