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Topic Guide - Nursing
Resources to help with research, study and learning about nursing theory.
Welcome to the School of Nursing at Lee University!
The School of Nursing offers two nursing degree programs: the Bachelor of Science in Nursing and the Doctor of Nursing Practice. The School also offers a non-nursing Bachelor of Science/Bachelor of Arts in Disaster and Healthcare Mission Management (DHMM). More information, including degree checklists for each major, can be found in the catalog.
Lee University’s School of Nursing was ranked #1 in Tennessee by registerednursing.org for its third Annual RN Program Rankings 2019 Edition.
RISE UP TO YOUR CALLING
The School of Nursing will prepare you to become a Christian health care leader in an increasingly diverse, global, complex and changing world.
We are INTENTIONAL
We are BOLD
We are TRANSFORMATIONAL
We are RADICALLY COMPASSIONATE
We are INFUSED WITH CHRIST-CENTERED CONFIDENCE
ACCREDITATION AND APPROVALS
The School of Nursing has achieved approvals through the TN Board of Nursing. The baccalaureate degree program in nursing at Lee University is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (www.ccneaccreditation.org).
Faye Glenn Abdellah was born on March 13, 1919. Abdellah was the first nurse officer to earn the ranking of a two-star rear admiral. She was the first nurse and the first woman to serve as a Deputy Surgeon General. Her work changed the focus of nursing from disease-centered to patient-centered, and began to include the care of families and the elderly in nursing care. The Patient Assessment of Care Evaluation developed by Abdellah is now the standard used in the United States.
There are no absolutes in health care. A patient's health is fluid, and nurses often have to adapt to an individual patient's situation in order to help him or her get healthy. What works for one patient in his or her illness may not work for another patient in his or her illness. Barker's Tidal Model helps nurses care for patients in the mental health field by recognizing and working with the inevitability of change in a patient's life and environment.
Benner earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in nursing from Pasadena College in 1964. She was given a Master of Science in Medical-Surgical Nursing from the University of California at San Francisco in 1970, and a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1982.
Helen C. Erickson was born in 1936. She earned her graduate degree from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in the mid-1970s. It was during this time she met Evelyn M. Tomlin, and it was their discussions that began the research into the Modeling and Role Modeling Theory of nursing. In 1986, Erickson began serving as an Associate Dean of Academic Affairs at the University of South Carolina.
Katie Eriksson is a Finland-Swedish nurse. After taking nursing in 1965 to be able to practice nursing, she became a nursing instructor at Helsinki Swedish Medical Institute. She currently works as a professor of health sciences at Abo Akademi University in Vaasa, where she built a master's degree program in health sciences, and a four-year postgraduate studies program leading to a doctoral degree in health sciences.
Lydia E. Hall was born on September 21, 1906 in New York City. In 1927, she earned her nursing diploma and went on to complete a Bachelor of Science in Public Health Nursing in 1937. She earned a Master's degree to teach natural sciences in 1942. Hall worked as the first director of the Loeb Center for Nursing. Her nursing experience was in clinical nursing, nursing education, research, and in a supervisory role.
As a patient receives treatment and is on the road to recovery, it's important that the patient is able to take care of him or herself after being released from medical care. To that end, nurses should be caring for the patient while, at the same time, be helping the patient become more independent and reach goals and milestones on the road to health. Virginia Henderson's Need Theory addresses this issue and helps nurses help patients so that they can care for themselves when they leave the healthcare facility.
Dorothy E. Johnson was born on August 21, 1919 in Savannah, Georgia. She earned her Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 1942 from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1948, she received her Master's degree from Harvard University. During her career, Johnson was an assistant professor of pediatric nursing, an associate professor of nursing, and a professor of nursing at the University of California in Los Angeles. She retired in 1978.
Many people decide to pursue a career in nursing because they want to be instrumental in helping patients get healthy. In order to do that, it's necessary to set health goals with the patient, then take steps to achieve those goals. Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment focuses on this process to aid nurses in the nurse-patient relationship, helping their patients meet the goals they set for their health.
One of the many roles of a nurse is to make sure patients are well cared for and comfortable. After all, many people decide to go into the field of nursing to help people, and what better way to help patients than to make sure they have everything they need to be comfortable during treatment and recovery? In Katharine Kolcaba's Comfort Theory of Nursing, the focus is on patient comfort. And though her theory is relatively new, it is one that will seem to be useful in a wide variety of nursing settings.
While it is important to look at a patient as a whole person from a physiological, psychological, spiritual, and social perspective, it is also important to take a patient's culture and cultural background into consideration when deciding how to care for that patient. After all, the values and beliefs passed down to that patient from generation to generation can have as much of an effect on that patient's health and reaction to treatment as the patient's environment and social life. The Transcultural Nursing theory developed by Madeleine Leininger is now a nursing discipline that is an integral part of how nurses practice in the healthcare field today.
Myra Estrine Levine was born in Chicago in 1920. In 1944, she earned a diploma in nursing from the Cook County School of Nursing, then went on to complete her Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of Chicago in 1949. Her Master's of Science in Nursing was given to her from Wayne State University in Detroit in 1962. She earned an honorary doctorate from Loyola University in 1992.
Kurt Lewin was born on September 9, 1890 in Germany to a Jewish family. In 1905 the family moved to Berlin, and Lewin entered the University of Freiburg to study medicine, but decided to study biology instead, prompting him to transfer to the University of Munich, where he became involved in women's rights and the socialist movement. When World War I began, he served in the German army. After an injury, he returned home and finished his Ph.D. at the University of Berlin under the supervision of Carl Stumpf.
It's important to look at a patient from a holistic perspective. A patient is not simply the illness or injury being treated, but an entire person. In fact, every aspect of a patient can contribute to how that patient deals with treatment and recovery, and it should all be considered when caring for the patient. In Betty Neuman's nursing theory, patients are cared for from a holistic perspective in order to ensure they are cared for as people and not simply ailments.
Margaret A. Newman was born on October 10, 1933. She earned her Bachelor's degree in 1962 from the University of Tennessee and her Master's degree in 1964 from the University of California. While working toward her graduate degree, Newman served as a joint director of nursing of a clinical research center, as well as an assistant professor of nursing at the University of Tennessee in Memphis.
Florence Nightingale is the most recognized name in the field of nursing. Her work was instrumental for developing modern nursing practice, and from her first shift, she worked to ensure patients in her care had what they needed to get healthy. Her Environmental Theory changed the face of nursing to create sanitary conditions for patients to get care
The relationship between a mother and child is an important one. The foundation of this relationship is the basis for how the mother and child grow and change together, as well as how the child develops individually. Many nurses work in the perinatal field in order to help foster this relationship, and nursing theory can give them the resources and tools to do it. Nurses can help women develop their maternal roles with the help of Ramona Mercer's Maternal Role Attainment Theory.
In some situations, patients are encouraged to be more independent. This can be especially true in rehabilitation settings, in which patients are transitioning out of being cared for by physicians and nurses and back home to exclusive self-care. In these cases, the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory can be applied to help patients be more independent and prepare to be released from the healthcare facility where they are being cared for.
Regardless of how well thought out a nursing care plan is for a patient, obstacles to the patient's recovery may come up at any time. This may cause problems for the original nursing care plan, and it's the nurse's job to know how to deal with those obstacles so the patient can continue to recover and stay on the path to health. Ida Jean Orlando's Deliberative Nursing Process is a nursing theory that allows nurses to create an effective nursing care plan that can also be easily adapted when and if any complications arise with the patient.
Most nursing theories focus on either a bio-medical approach or a bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach. And while these theories are not only valid, but often very effective, there are some nurses who would prefer to focus on the quality of life of their patients, particularly from each individual patient's perspective. The Human Becoming Theory of Nursing, developed by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, addresses this very issue.
One of the roles of nurses is to help patients learn to care for themselves and make healthy choices. By participating in their own self-care, patients can prevent illnesses and diseases and help ensure they have better overall health. One nursing theory that helps patients prevent illnesses through their behavior and choices is the Health Promotion Model, which was developed by nursing theorist Nola Pender.
any people enter the healthcare field because they want to work with people. For these nurses, it is the nurse-patient relationship that is one of the most important things. By understanding the nurse-patient relationship, nurses can be better quipped to work with their patients and, ultimately, provide better care for them. Hildegard Peplau's model of nursing focuses on that nurse-patient relationship and identifies the different roles nurses take on when working with patients.
Nursing begins with education. Before you can practice as a nurse, you have to learn what it means to be a nurse, as well as the specifics of how to carry out the duties of your role as a nurse in the field. One of the important contributors to the area of nursing education was Isabel Hampton Robb. Her work in nursing has led to her being thought of as a founder of modern American nursing theory, and many of the standards she implemented are still in place today.
There are many people who believe that a person and his or her environment are integral to each other. That is, a patient can't be separated from his or her environment when addressing health and treatment. By practicing nursing with this view of the coexistence of the human and his or her environment, a nurse can apply Martha E. Rogers's Science of Unitary Human Beings to treat patients and help them in the process of change toward better health.
One draw of the field of nursing is the ability for nurses to individualize their care plans for their patients. In order to ensure that unique patients are able to get healthy, they need nursing care plans as unique as they are. This means assessment and evaluation of each patient before and during care. Nancy Roper's desire to become a nurse started in childhood, and as a result of her experiences and education, she, along with two of her colleagues, developed the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model of Nursing to assess patients' level of independence and provide the best individualized care for them.
Though there are hard and fast answers in the healthcare field, it is also adaptive and nurses need to be flexible in order to provide the best care for their patients. After all, each patient is different and should be cared for based on the individual needs of that particular patient. To better understand the adaptive nature of nursing, it would help to study Sister Callista Roy's Adaptive Model of Nursing.
Henry Stack-Sullivan who also known by the name Harry Stack-Sullivan was born on February 21, 1892 in Norwich, New York to Irish immigrant parents. His social isolation as a child may have contributed his later interest in psychiatry. After graduating from the Smyrna Union School, he spent two years at Cornell University, beginning in 1909. In 1917, Stack-Sullivan earned his medical degree from the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery.
Joyce Travelbee was born in 1926 and is known for her work as a nursing theorist. In 1956, Travelbee earned her Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree from Louisiana State University. She was given a Master of Science in Nursing degree in 1959 from Yale University. Her career dealt predominantly with psychiatric nursing and education. She worked as a psychiatric nursing instructor at the DePaul Hospital Affiliate School in New Orleans, Louisiana, and worked later in the Charity Hospital School of Nursing in Louisiana State University, New York University, and the University of Mississippi.
Many men and women enter the nursing field because they see it as a career that cares about people. Compassion is often a trait required of nurses, since taking care of patients' needs is their primary purpose. Jean Watson's Philosophy and Science of Caring addresses how nurses care for their patients, and how that caring translates into better health plans to help patients get healthy
Ernestine Wiedenbach was born in 1900 in Hamburg, Germany, and her family moved to New York in 1909. She earned a Bachelor of Arts from Wellesley College in 1922 and her Registered Nurse's license from the John Hopkins School of Nursing in 1925. She got her Masters of Arts from Teachers College, Columbia University in 1934. In 1946, Wiedenbach earned a certificate in nurse-midwifery from the Maternity Center Association School for Nurse-Midwives in New York, and taught there until 1951. In 1952, she joined the faculty of Yale University as an instructor in maternity nursing. She became an assistant professor of obstetric nursing in 1954. When the Yale School of Nursing established a master's degree program, she became an associate professor and was the director of the major in maternal and newborn health nursing.