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Research Starter - DIGM 200: APA Citation Style

APA 7th Edition

This guide is a general overview of the American Psychological Association (APA) Style for references and citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA or the APA Style website for detailed standards and procedures.

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This guide was based on the guide created by Tessa Withorn at CSUDH Library and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

How do I format my APA 7th Edition paper?

The information provided below will assist you in properly formatting your paper according to the APA 7th Edition standards.  Please note that papers that are being written for publication will require additional formatting components.  Please check with your professor to ensure that you are meeting all requirements for your specific class and project.

 

How do I format my APA 7th Edition paper?

Watch the video below to learn how to format your APA 7th Edition paper including:

  • Acceptable Font and Font Size
  • How to add page numbers
  • How to Format the Title Page 
  • Spacing Requirements for Main Body and Reference List

 

 

What does an example APA 7th Edition paper look like? 

APA Style offers sample student and professional papers, including an annotated student sample paper.

 

 

 

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citation with your cursor. 

2. Right-click. 

3. Select Paragraph.

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

Animated gif of creating a hanging indent in Word. Highlight the full citation. Right click. Go to Paragraph. To to the Special drop down menu, select Hanging. Select Okay.

 

 

How do I format a student title page?

Please note that papers for publication will require some different elements.  Please check with your professor to inquire about the specific guidelines of your assignment or project.  Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their title page. Unless instructed otherwise, these are the different components of the student title page:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Affiliation (University and School/Department)
  • Course Number and Name
  • Instructor Name
  • Assignment Due Date
  • Page Number (Upper Right Hand Corner)

 

 

 

 

How do I format a running head?

Please note that papers for publication will require a running head.  Please check with your professor to inquire about the specific guidelines of your assignment or project.  Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their papers. 

 

 

How do I format an abstract?

Please note that papers for publication will require an abstract.  Please check with your professor to inquire about the specific guidelines of your assignment or project.  Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their papers. 

 

In-text Citations

When you reference someone else's words or thoughts, use an in-text citation in the body of your paper. Watch the video below to learn more. 

Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name(s) or Organization, Year).

How do I format my citations?

The information provided below will assist you in properly formatting your in-text citations according to the APA 7th Edition standards.  Please note that the type of citation (for a quote, paraphrase or summary) and the number of authors in a work being cited will determine the format of your in-text citation.

I'm using...

 

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. You must inlcude the page number(s) when incorporating a direct quote; place the page number directly after the quote. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Brown (2019), "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • Brown (2019) found that "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Brown, 2019, p. 1021).

 

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words, use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.

Shavers (2007) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)

Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status.

 

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
One author (Mercer, 2020) Mercer (2020)

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
Two authors (Morgan & Mattace, 2020) Morgan and Mattace (2020)

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
Three or more authors (Ward et al., 2020) Ward et al. (2020)

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation

Group author with abbreviation

     First citation

     Subsequent citations

 

(Appalachian College Association [ACA], 2020)

(ACA, 2020)

 

Appalachian College Association (ACA, 2020)

ACA (2020)

Group author without abbreviation (Lee University, 2020) Lee University (2020)

References

Include the complete citation at the end of your paper in the reference section. References are organized by the author's last name in alphabetic (A-Z) order. Use a hanging indent to separate each list item. Watch the video below to learn more.

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of the work. Source where you can retrieve the work. URL or DOI if available

Reference Examples

I'm citing a...

Citing a letter, photograph, text document, graphic material, or ephemera? Consult the Gerth Archives APA Citation Guide for Archival Materials.

Scheduling a Writing Center Appointment

Lee students have access to the University's Writing Center. 

Lee students can take advantage of the Lee University Writing Center to receive assistance with their writing assignments.  Trained tutors can help you with questions you may have about determining a topic, developing a thesis, and creating citations.  Watch the video below to learn more or click here to schedule an appointment.