This guide is a general overview of the Modern Language Association (MLA) Style for references and citations. Be sure to consult the MLA Handbook or the MLA Website for detailed standards and procedures.
This guide was based on the guide created by Tessa Withorn at CSUDH Library and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.
How do I format my MLA paper?
Please visit the MLA website to learn more about formatting your MLA style paper.
When you reference someone else's words or thoughts, use an in-text citation in the body of your paper. Watch the video below to learn more.
(Author's Last Name Page#).
How do I format my citations?
If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, make certain to include quotation marks around those words. You must also cite information that you have placed into your own words, a paraphrase.
If you're directly quoting a passage that is longer than 4 lines, use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.
Shavers' study found the following:
While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (1021)
Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.
For works that are parts of a greater whole, such as a chapter in a book or an article in a journal, the greater whole is considered the container.
Also, there are instances when you will have a second container, such as a chapter in a book that was accessed online through the HathiTrust Digital Library or an article in a journal that was accessed through the library's JSTOR database.
In these instances, the second container must also be listed in your citation. The second container's information will be listed at the very end of your citation.