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Research Starter - THEA 280: APA 7th Edition

The class will be learning about how to do visual research for costumes.

APA 7th Edition

This guide is a general overview of the American Psychological Association (APA) Style for references and citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA or the APA Style website for detailed standards and procedures.

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This guide was based on the guide created by Tessa Withorn at CSUDH Library and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

How do I format my APA 7th Edition paper?

The information provided below will assist you in properly formatting your paper according to the APA 7th Edition standards.  Please note that papers that are being written for publication will require additional formatting components.  Please check with your professor to ensure that you are meeting all requirements for your specific class and project.

 

How do I format my APA 7th Edition paper?

Watch the video below to learn how to format your APA 7th Edition paper including:

  • Acceptable Font and Font Size
  • How to add page numbers
  • How to Format the Title Page 
  • Spacing Requirements for Main Body and Reference List

 

 

What does an example APA 7th Edition paper look like? 

APA Style offers sample student and professional papers, including an annotated student sample paper.

 

 

 

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citation with your cursor. 

2. Right-click. 

3. Select Paragraph.

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

Animated gif of creating a hanging indent in Word. Highlight the full citation. Right click. Go to Paragraph. To to the Special drop down menu, select Hanging. Select Okay.

 

 

How do I format a student title page?

Please note that papers for publication will require some different elements.  Please check with your professor to inquire about the specific guidelines of your assignment or project.  Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their title page. Unless instructed otherwise, these are the different components of the student title page:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Affiliation (University and School/Department)
  • Course Number and Name
  • Instructor Name
  • Assignment Due Date
  • Page Number (Upper Right Hand Corner)

 

 

 

 

How do I format a running head?

Please note that papers for publication will require a running head.  Please check with your professor to inquire about the specific guidelines of your assignment or project.  Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their papers. 

 

 

How do I format an abstract?

Please note that papers for publication will require an abstract.  Please check with your professor to inquire about the specific guidelines of your assignment or project.  Students should follow any specific instructions provided by their individual instructors when it comes to formatting their papers. 

 

In-text Citations

When you reference someone else's words or thoughts, use an in-text citation in the body of your paper. Watch the video below to learn more. 

Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name(s) or Organization, Year).

How do I format my citations?

The information provided below will assist you in properly formatting your in-text citations according to the APA 7th Edition standards.  Please note that the type of citation (for a quote, paraphrase or summary) and the number of authors in a work being cited will determine the format of your in-text citation.

I'm using...

 

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. You must inlcude the page number(s) when incorporating a direct quote; place the page number directly after the quote. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Brown (2019), "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • Brown (2019) found that "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Brown, 2019, p. 1021).

 

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words, use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.

Shavers (2007) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)

Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status.

 

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
One author (Mercer, 2020) Mercer (2020)

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
Two authors (Morgan & Mattace, 2020) Morgan and Mattace (2020)

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
Three or more authors (Ward et al., 2020) Ward et al. (2020)

 

Author Type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation

Group author with abbreviation

     First citation

     Subsequent citations

 

(Appalachian College Association [ACA], 2020)

(ACA, 2020)

 

Appalachian College Association (ACA, 2020)

ACA (2020)

Group author without abbreviation (Lee University, 2020) Lee University (2020)

References

Include the complete citation at the end of your paper in the reference section. References are organized by the author's last name in alphabetic (A-Z) order. Use a hanging indent to separate each list item. Watch the video below to learn more.

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of the work. Source where you can retrieve the work. URL or DOI if available

Reference Examples

I'm citing a...

Citing a letter, photograph, text document, graphic material, or ephemera? Consult the Gerth Archives APA Citation Guide for Archival Materials.

CONTENTS


7TH EDITION CHANGES 

This guide serves to review the changes that were made to the APA 7th Edition Publication Manual.  This is not an exhaustive list but rather a collection of differences that have been identified by the library faculty and staff.  Please feel free to contact us if you have noticed a change that is not listed here.

All standards appearing on this page are from the new 7th Edition Style Manual. 

 

 
The manual provides 114 examples to follow. The examples range from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and social media. When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online sources easier and clearer.  For each reference category, an easy template is provided to help you understand and apply the citation guidelines.  Please feel free to contact the library if you have questions about a specific resource type.
 
Listed here are some of the biggest changes in the 7th edition:
 
1. The publisher location is no longer included in the reference.
  • 6th edition: Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
  • 7th edition: Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.
2. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”.
  • 6th edition: (Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)
  • 7th edition: (Taylor et al., 2018)
3. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.
  • 6th edition: Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., … Lee, L. H. (2018).
  • 7th edition: Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).
4. DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary.
  • 6th edition: doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449
  • 7th edition: https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449
5. URLs are no longer require the phrase “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.
  • 6th edition: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127
  • 7th edition: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127
6. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included. See comparison of 6th & 7th APA below:
  • 6th edition: Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites [Kindle version]. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2
  • 7th edition: Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2
7. Examples are included in the APA 7 Manual for online source types such as podcast episodes, social media posts, and YouTube videos. The use of emojis and hashtags is also explained.
 
Writing inclusively and without bias is the standard now emphasized in APA’s (7th Edition) new publication manual. contains a separate chapter on this topic. The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity. Some examples include:
 
8. The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.
  • 6th edition: A researcher’s career depends on how often he or she is cited.
  • 7th edition: A researcher’s career depends on how often they are cited.
9. Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are preferred.
  • 6th edition: The poor
  • 7th edition: People living in poverty
10. Instead of broad categories, you should use exact age ranges that are more relevant and specific.
  • 6th edition: People over 65 years old
  • 7th edition: People in the age range of 65 to 75 years old
 
In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:
 
11. Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11.
 
12. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It now contains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title.
 
13. The running head itself is omitted in student papers (unless required by instructor).
 
14. Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability.
 
In terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and better explained guidelines, there are two notable changes:
15. Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence.
 
16. Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”) instead of italics.6
  • 6th edition: APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun they
  • 7th edition: APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”

LEVELS OF HEADING

Format for the Five Levels of Heading in APA Style

Level Format
1

Centered, Bold, Title Case Heading

     Text begins as a new paragraph.

2

Flush Left, Bold, Title Case Heading

     Text begins as a new paragraph.

3

Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading

     Text begins as a new paragraph.

4

     Indented, Bold, Title Case Heading, Ending With a Period. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.

5

     Indented, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading, Ending With a Period. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.


STYLE GUIDE


SAMPLE REFERENCE PAGE


Scheduling a Writing Center Appointment

Distance students have access to the University's Writing Center. 

Distance students can schedule an online appointment, upload their paper or assignment, and then meet virtually with a trained writing tutor to discuss any questions and concerns the student may have about their writing.